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Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2009 Aug;6(8):478-87. doi: 10.1038/nrclinonc.2009.91. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Immunotherapeutic strategies in kidney cancer--when TKIs are not enough.

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  • 1Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.


FDA approval of the multitargeted, antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sunitinib and sorafenib, and the serine and threonine mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, temsirolimus, has revolutionized the management of metastatic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (CC-RCC). The inability of these targeted therapies to provide durable complete responses, however, is a serious limiting factor to their clinical usefulness. Although immunotherapeutic approaches in advanced disease are increasingly regarded as a historical treatment paradigm, we propose that a fundamental understanding of immunobiology in CC-RCC can improve the selection of patients for high-dose intravenous interleukin 2 and facilitate the development of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. In our opinion, immunotherapeutic strategies have an important place in the management of advanced CC-RCC in the era of biological targeted therapy.

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