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Nat Rev Neurosci. 2009 Jul;10(7):530-40. doi: 10.1038/nrn2653.

Principles of neural ensemble physiology underlying the operation of brain-machine interfaces.

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  • 1Duke University Center for Neuroengineering and the Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.


Research on brain-machine interfaces has been ongoing for at least a decade. During this period, simultaneous recordings of the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of individual neurons have been used for direct, real-time control of various artificial devices. Brain-machine interfaces have also added greatly to our knowledge of the fundamental physiological principles governing the operation of large neural ensembles. Further understanding of these principles is likely to have a key role in the future development of neuroprosthetics for restoring mobility in severely paralysed patients.

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