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Opt Express. 2007 Apr 2;15(7):4287-95.

Icosahedral quasicrystals for visible wavelengths by optical interference holography.


Quasicrystals, realized in metal alloys, are a class of lattices exhibiting symmetries that fall outside the usual classification for periodic crystals. They do not have translational symmetry and yet the lattice points are well ordered. Furthermore, they exhibit higher rotational symmetry than periodic crystals. Because of the higher symmetry (more spherical), they are more optimal than periodic crystals in achieving complete photonic bandgaps in a new class of materials called photonic crystals in which the propagation of light in certain frequency ranges is forbidden. The potential of quasicrystals has been demonstrated in two dimensions for the infrared range and, recently, in three-dimensional icosahedral quasicrystals fabricated using a stereo lithography method for the microwave range and direct laser writing for the IR range. Here, we report the fabrication and optical characterization of icosahedral quasicrystals using a holographic lithography method for the visible range. The icosahedral pattern, generated using a novel 7-beam optical interference holography, is recorded on photoresists and holographic plates. Electron micrographs of the photoresist samples show clearly the symmetry of the icosahedral quasicrystals in the submicron range, while the holographic plate samples exhibit bandgaps in the angular-dependent transmission spectra in the visible range. Calculations of the bandgaps due to reflection planes inside the icosahedral quasicrystal show good agreement with the experimental results.

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