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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009 Jun;18(6):1730-9. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-09-0045.

Intakes of fruit, vegetables, and carotenoids and renal cell cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies.

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  • 1Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. jung.lee@channing.harvard.edu

Abstract

Fruit and vegetable consumption has been hypothesized to reduce the risk of renal cell cancer. We conducted a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies, including 1,478 incident cases of renal cell cancer (709 women and 769 men) among 530,469 women and 244,483 men followed for up to 7 to 20 years. Participants completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Using the primary data from each study, the study-specific relative risks (RR) were calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model and then pooled using a random effects model. We found that fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with a reduced risk of renal cell cancer. Compared with <200 g/d of fruit and vegetable intake, the pooled multivariate RR for >or=600 g/d was 0.68 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.54-0.87; P for between-studies heterogeneity = 0.86; P for trend = 0.001]. Compared with <100 g/d, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CI) for >or=400 g/d were 0.79 (0.63-0.99; P for trend = 0.03) for total fruit and 0.72 (0.48-1.08; P for trend = 0.07) for total vegetables. For specific carotenoids, the pooled multivariate RRs (95% CIs) comparing the highest and lowest quintiles were 0.87 (0.73-1.03) for alpha-carotene, 0.82 (0.69-0.98) for beta-carotene, 0.86 (0.73-1.01) for beta-cryptoxanthin, 0.82 (0.64-1.06) for lutein/zeaxanthin, and 1.13 (0.95-1.34) for lycopene. In conclusion, increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with decreasing risk of renal cell cancer; carotenoids present in fruit and vegetables may partly contribute to this protection.

PMID:
19505906
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2883186
Free PMC Article
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