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Opt Express. 2006 Mar 20;14(6):2440-5.

Low loss silicon on insulator photonic crystal waveguides made by 193nm optical lithography.


We show the successful fabrication and operation of photonic crystal waveguides on SOI, with lower silicon dioxide cladding remaining, using 193 nm DUV lithography. We demonstrate that 193 nm lithography gives more process latitude, allowing a wider range of periods and hole diameters to be printed, as well as reducing the optical proximity effect to a minimum. The smallest period /hole size variation printed successfully was 280 nm and 150 nm, which is very promising for ambitious future designs. Lowest losses obtained were 14.2 +/- 2.0 dB/cm for a W1 waveguide in a 400 nm lattice with an r/a of 0.25 at a frequency of 0.257 a/lambda, which approaches the best losses reported for air-bridge type W1s.

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