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Opt Express. 2006 Jan 9;14(1):148-61.

Monolithically integrated asymmetric graded and step-index couplers for microphotonic waveguides.


A monolithically integrated asymmetric graded index (GRIN) or step-index (GRIN) mode converters for microphotonic waveguides are proposed and described. The design parameters and tolerances are calculated for amorphous silicon (a-Si) couplers integrated with silicon-on-insulator waveguides. The GRIN and step-index couplers operate over a wide wavelength range with low polarization dependence, and the lithographic resolution needed is only +/-1 microm. Finally, experimental results are presented for a single layer 3 microm thick step-index a-Si coupler integrated on a 0.8 microm thick SOI waveguide. The measured variation of coupling efficiency with coupler length is in agreement with theory, with an optimal coupling length of 15 microm for this device.

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