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Opt Express. 2004 Nov 1;12(22):5475-80.

Assembly of 3-dimensional structures using programmable holographic optical tweezers.


The micromanipulation of objects into 3-dimensional geometries within holographic optical tweezers is carried out using modified Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) and direct binary search (DBS) algorithms to produce the hologram designs. The algorithms calculate sequences of phase holograms, which are implemented using a spatial light modulator, to reconfigure the geometries of optical traps in many planes simultaneously. The GS algorithm is able to calculate holograms quickly from the initial, intermediate and final trap positions. In contrast, the DBS algorithm is slower and therefore used to pre-calculate the holograms, which are then displayed in sequence. Assembly of objects in a variety of 3-D configurations is semi-automated, once the traps in their initial positions are loaded.

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