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Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2009 Aug;9(4):447-53. doi: 10.1016/j.coph.2009.04.008. Epub 2009 May 29.

Anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory roles of TGF-beta, IL-10, and IL-22 in immunity and autoimmunity.

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  • 1Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


Cytokines play a major role in maintaining lymphocyte homeostasis under both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. Unregulated lymphocytes in steady-state conditions can lead to autoimmunity, whereas during inflammation they can cause excessive tissue damage. Regulatory cytokines function in combination with other environmental signals to properly modulate the function and the extent of lymphocyte activation. Many recent studies have highlighted the importance of regulatory cytokines in controlling the differentiation and function of lymphocytes under steady-state and inflammatory conditions, as well as minimizing tissue damage.

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