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AIDS. 2009 Jul 17;23(11):1349-57. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832ba904.

Effects of switching from lopinavir/ritonavir to atazanavir/ritonavir on muscle glucose uptake and visceral fat in HIV-infected patients.

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  • 1Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02114, USA.



To determine the effects of switching from lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) to atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) on muscle glucose uptake, glucose homeostasis, lipids, and body composition.


Fifteen HIV-infected men and women on a regimen containing LPV/r and with evidence of hyperinsulinemia and/or dyslipidemia were randomized to continue LPV/r or to switch to ATV/r (ATV 300 mg and ritonavir 100 mg daily) for 6 months. The primary endpoint was change in thigh muscle glucose uptake as measured by positron emission tomography. Secondary endpoints included abdominal visceral adipose tissue, fasting lipids, and safety parameters. The difference over time between treatment groups (treatment effect of ATV/r relative to LPV/r) was determined by repeated measures ANCOVA.


After 6 months, anterior thigh muscle glucose uptake increased significantly (treatment effect +18.2 +/- 5.9 micromol/kg per min, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, P = 0.035), and visceral adipose tissue area decreased significantly in individuals who switched to ATV/r (treatment effect -31 +/- 11 cm, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, P = 0.047). Switching to ATV/r significantly decreased triglyceride (treatment effect -182 +/- 64 mg/dl, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (treatment effect -23 +/- 8 mg/dl, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, P = 0.01), whereas high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein did not change significantly. Fasting glucose also decreased significantly following switch to ATV/r (treatment effect -15 +/- 4 mg/dl, ATV/r vs. LPV/r, P = 0.002).


Switching from LPV/r to ATV/r significantly increases glucose uptake by muscle, decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue, improves lipid parameters, and decreases fasting glucose over 6 months.


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