Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;90(1):70-5. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27411. Epub 2009 May 27.

Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women.

Author information

  • 1School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia.



Several studies show that proteins, including whey and casein, are more satiating than carbohydrates. It follows that skim milk would be more satiating than sugar-rich beverages. However, this has yet to be shown.


The objective was to investigate the effects of drinking skim milk in comparison with a fruit drink at breakfast on self-reported postmeal satiety and energy intake at lunch.


In a randomized crossover trial, 34 overweight women (n = 21) and men (n = 13) attended 2 sessions 1 wk apart. At each session, participants consumed a fixed-energy breakfast together with either 600 mL skim milk (25 g protein, 36 g lactose, <1 g fat; 1062 kJ) or 600 mL fruit drink (<1 g protein, 63 g sugar, <1 g fat; approximately 1062 kJ). Participants provided satiety ratings throughout the morning. Four hours after breakfast they consumed an ad libitum lunch, and energy intake was assessed.


Participants consumed significantly less energy at lunch after consuming skim milk (mean: 2432 kJ; 95% CI: 2160, 2704 kJ) than after consuming the fruit drink (mean: 2658 kJ; 95% CI: 2386, 2930 kJ), with a mean difference of approximately 8.5% (P < 0.05). In addition, self-reports of satiety were higher throughout the morning after consumption of skim milk than after consumption of the fruit drink (P < 0.05) with the differences becoming larger over the 4 h (P < 0.05).


Consumption of skim milk, in comparison with a fruit drink, leads to increased perceptions of satiety and to decreased energy intake at a subsequent meal. This trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry at ( as ACTRN12608000510347.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

LinkOut - more resources

Full Text Sources

Other Literature Sources

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk