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Opt Express. 2003 Nov 3;11(22):2927-39.

Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides.


We report the design and testing of an SOI-based photonic integrated circuit containing two-dimensional membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides. The circuit comprises spot-size converters to efficiently couple light from a fiber into single-mode strip waveguides and butt-couplers to couple from strip waveguides to photonic crystal waveguides. Each optical interface was optimized to minimize back-reflections and reduce the Fabry-Perot noise. The transmission characteristics of each component are measured and record low propagation losses in photonic crystal waveguides of 24dB/cm are reported. The combination of an efficient two-stage coupling scheme and utilization of ultra-long (up to 2mm) photonic crystal waveguides reduces the uncertainty in determining the loss figure to 3dB/cm.

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