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Opt Express. 2003 Jul 14;11(14):1650-8.

High speed, wide velocity dynamic range Doppler optical coherence tomography (Part II): Imaging in vivo cardiac dynamics of Xenopus laevis.


We previously reported a Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) system design [1] for high-speed imaging with wide velocity dynamic range (up to 28.5 dB when acquiring 8 frames per second), operating at 1.3 m with a coherence length of 13.5 m. Using a developmental biology model (Xenopus laevis), here we test the DOCT system's ability to image cardiac dynamics in an embryo in vivo, with a simple hand-held scanner at 4 ~ 16 frames per second. In particular, we show that high fidelity DOCT movies can be obtained by increasing the reference arm scanning rate (~8 kHz). Utilizing a combination of four display modes (B-mode, color-Doppler, velocity variance, and Doppler spectrum), we show that DOCT can detect changes in velocity distribution during heart cycles, measure the velocity gradient in the embryo, and distinguish blood flow Doppler signal from heart wall motions.

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