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Am Heart J. 2009 Jun;157(6):1026-34. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2009.02.022. Epub 2009 Apr 23.

Effect of pulmonary hypertension on clinical outcomes in advanced heart failure: analysis of the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) database.

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  • 1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.



Pulmonary hypertension has been shown to predict hospitalizations and mortality in patients with heart failure. We aimed to define the prevalence of mixed pulmonary hypertension (MPH; mean pulmonary artery pressure > or = 25 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >15 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance > or = 3 Wood units), identify clinical predictors of MPH, and determine whether MPH predicts adverse outcomes in patients hospitalized with severe heart failure.


This is a subgroup analysis of patients assigned to pulmonary artery catheter placement in the Evaluation Study of Congestive Heart Failure and Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Effectiveness (ESCAPE) trial. Patients with and without MPH were compared with respect to baseline characteristics and clinical outcomes, including NYHA class, 6-minute walk distance, quality of life, days hospitalized, and 6-month mortality.


Of the 171 patients studied, 80 (47%) had MPH. Older age was the only significant predictor of MPH. MPH patients had lower cardiac index (1.8 +/- 0.5 L/min vs 2.1 +/- 0.5 L/min, P = .001) and higher systemic vascular resistance index (3,179 +/- 1,454 vs 2,550 +/- 927 dynes x s/cm5 x m2, P < .001) compared to those without MPH. Importantly, right ventricular function was relatively preserved (median RVSWI 8.7 gm-m/m2/beat) in MPH patients. There were no significant differences in clinical outcomes between the two groups.


Mixed pulmonary hypertension is common in patients hospitalized with advanced heart failure and is not associated with adverse short-term clinical outcomes over and above the poor prognosis of ADHF patients without MPH.

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