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Clin Chim Acta. 2009 Aug;406(1-2):170-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2009.05.013. Epub 2009 May 20.

Heat-insoluble cryoglobulin in a patient with essential type II cryoglobulinemia and cryoglobulin-occlusive membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis: case report and literature review.

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  • 1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Royal University Hospital, University of Saskatchewan, 103 Hospital Drive, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 0W8. qing.meng@usask.ca

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A type of heat-insoluble cryoglobulin has been rarely reported and poorly understood. We report the case of a 79 y-old female who was admitted to hospital due to edema and renal failure.

METHODS:

Serial biochemical, immunological, and histological investigations were conducted.

RESULTS:

This patient had elevated serum urea and creatinine with positive rheumatoid factor and low serum C3 and C4. Her serum was positive for cryoglobulin at 4 degrees C. The precipitate did not dissolve at 37 degrees C until it was heated to 56 degrees C. Electrophoresis of the cryoglobulin demonstrated a monoclonal spike in the gamma region characterized as IgG-kappa and polyclonal IgM by immunofixation. Bone marrow aspiration showed presence of 5% plasma cells. Histological examination of renal biopsy revealed a diffuse increase in mesangial matrix, cellularity and endocapillary proliferation. Numerous monocyte/macrophages were present within mesangium and capillary lumina. Focal double contouring of glomerular basement membrane with subendothelial deposits and "hyaline thrombi" were noted. Accordingly, a type II heat-insoluble cryoglobulinemia associated with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance was made.

CONCLUSIONS:

The unusual heat-insoluble cryoglobulins may indicate severe clinical consequence. Proper laboratory procedure and careful examination of cryoglobulin will assure early recognition and detection of heat-insoluble cryoglobulins.

PMID:
19463798
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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