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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2009 Jul;25(2):407-21. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2009.03.001.

Approach to the critically ill camelid.

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  • 1Department of Clinical Sciences, Large Animal Hospital, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, 200 Westboro Road, North Grafton, MA 01536, USA.


The estimation of fluid deficits in camelids is challenging. However, early recognition and treatment of shock and hypovolemia is instrumental to improve morbidity and mortality of critically ill camelids. Early goal-directed fluid therapy requires specific knowledge of clinical indicators of hypovolemia and assessment of resuscitation endpoints, but may significantly enhance the understanding, monitoring, and safety of intravenous fluid therapy in South American camelids (SAC). It is important to recognize that over-aggressive fluid resuscitation is just as detrimental as under resuscitation. Nonetheless, a protocol of conservative fluid management is often indicated in the treatment of camelids with pulmonary inflammation, to counteract edema formation. The early recognition of lung dysfunction is often based on advanced diagnostic techniques, including arterial blood gas analysis, diagnostic imaging, and noninvasive pulmonary function testing.

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