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Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2009 Jul;25(2):311-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2009.03.004.

Clinical pathology of llamas and alpacas.

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  • Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oregon State University, 200 Magruder Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. susan.tornquist@oregonstate.edu


Clinical laboratory data including hematology, hemostasis, biochemical, and cytologic findings contribute to diagnosis and monitoring of numerous conditions in camelids. Establishment of reference intervals and descriptions of normal components of fluids in these species have improved our ability to interpret test results.

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