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BMJ Clin Evid. 2007 Dec 4;2007. pii: 2101.

Paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning.

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  • 1Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australia.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Acute organophosphorus poisoning occurs after dermal, respiratory, or oral exposure to either low-volatility pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos, dimethoate) or high-volatility nerve gases (e.g. sarin, tabun). Most cases occur in resource-poor countries as a result of occupational or deliberate exposure to organophosphorus pesticides.

METHODS AND OBJECTIVES:

We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for acute organophosphorus poisoning? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2006 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).

RESULTS:

We found 22 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

CONCLUSIONS:

In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: activated charcoal, alpha2 adrenergic receptor agonists, atropine, benzodiazepines, butyrylcholinesterase replacement therapy, cathartics, extracorporeal clearance, gastric lavage, glycopyrronium bromide, ipecacuanha, magnesium sulphate, milk or other home remedies, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, organophosphorus hydrolases, oximes, sodium bicarbonate, washing the poisoned person and removing contaminated clothing.

PMID:
19450343
[PubMed - in process]
PMCID:
PMC2943815
Free PMC Article
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