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Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2009 Sep;83(3):374-7. doi: 10.1007/s00128-009-9762-0. Epub 2009 May 12.

Residues of Pesticides in honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) bee bread and in pollen loads from treated apple orchards.

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  • 1Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova 17, Ljubljana, Slovenia.


Honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) colonies were placed in two apple orchards treated with the insecticides diazinon and thiacloprid and the fungicide difenoconazole in accordance with a Protection Treatment Plan in the spring of 2007. Pollen and bee bread were collected from combs inside the hives. The residue of diazinon in pollen loads 10 days after orchard treatment was 0.09 mg/kg, and the same amount of residue was found in bee bread 16 days after treatment. In pollen loads 6 days after application 0.03 mg/kg of thiacloprid residues and 0.01 mg/kg of difenoconazole were found on the first day after application. Possible sub-lethal effects on individual honey bees and brood are discussed.

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