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J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Apr 21;122(3):457-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.01.038. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

In vitro anti-inflammatory effects of arctigenin, a lignan from Arctium lappa L., through inhibition on iNOS pathway.

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  • 1School of Pharmacy, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong, China.

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:

Arctigenin, a bioactive constituent from dried seeds of Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) which has been widely used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine for dispelling wind and heat included in Chinese Pharmacophere, was found to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities but its molecular mechanism remains unknown yet.

AIM OF THE STUDY:

To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Cultured macrophage RAW 264.7 cells and THP-1 cells were used for the experiments. Griess assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of arctigenin on the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was used to determine the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The inhibitory effect on the enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was tested by colorimetric method. Western blot was used to detect the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and COX-2.

RESULTS:

Arctigenin suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production and pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion, including TNF-alpha and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also strongly inhibited the expression of iNOS and iNOS enzymatic activity, whereas the expression of COX-2 and COX-2 enzymatic activity were not affected by arctigenin.

CONCLUSIONS:

These results indicated that potent inhibition on NO, TNF-alpha and IL-6, but not COX-2 expression and COX-2 activity, might constitute the anti-inflammatory mechanism of arctigenin. Arctigenin suppressed the overproduction of NO through down-regulation of iNOS expression and iNOS enzymatic activity in LPS-stimulated macrophage.

PMID:
19429312
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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