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Dig Dis Sci. 2010 Apr;55(4):1149-54. doi: 10.1007/s10620-009-0825-1. Epub 2009 May 8.

A recent evaluation of empirical cephalosporin treatment and antibiotic resistance of changing bacterial profiles in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

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  • 1Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Maremar Medical Center, Baskent University, Ankara, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

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  • Dig Dis Sci. 2010 May;55(5):1502. Husamettin, Erdamar [added].

Abstract

The aim of this research is to evaluate the recent changes in microorganisms causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients, antibiotic resistance, and response to empirical cephalosporin therapy. A total of 218 patients with ascites secondary to cirrhosis were enrolled. Parenteral cefotaxime or cefepime was given to patients who had a neutrophil count of 250/mm(3) or more or a positive bacterial culture of ascitic fluid. Antibiotic failure was defined by an absence of clinical improvement and an insufficient decrease in neutrophil count of ascites (<25% of initial value) by the third day of therapy. Of all the patients, 44.6% had culture-negative neutrocytic ascites, 24.8% had spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and 10.1% had monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites. Growth in culture was observed in 76 patients (34.9%). The two most common isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (33.8%) and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS; 19.7%). The two cephalosporins were effective against E. coli (82%) and but not against CoNS (44%), while levofloxacin showed reasonable activity against both E. coli (71%) and CoNS (90%) in vitro. We confirmed a recent increased incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Levofloxacin seems to be a good alternative treatment for patients with uncomplicated spontaneous ascites infections.

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