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AIDS. 2009 Jul 17;23(11):1367-76. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832c4947.

First line zidovudine/lamivudine/lopinavir/ritonavir leads to greater bone loss compared to nevirapine/lopinavir/ritonavir.

Author information

  • 1VU University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. M.van.Vonderen@znb.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

We studied changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the contribution of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) in particular.

DESIGN:

Randomized clinical trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) + ZDV/3TC with LPV/r + nevirapine (NVP) in 50 cART-naive men.

METHODS:

Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative computed tomography scans (QCT) were performed at baseline and 3, 12, and 24 months after cART initiation. Serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3, parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, and urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD)/creatinine ratio were measured.

RESULTS:

BMD decreased rapidly in both femoral neck and lumbar spine after cART initiation. BMD loss during 24 months measured by DXA, but not by QCT, was greater in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group compared to the NVP/LPV/r group [femoral neck: -6.3% +/- 1.0% (P < 0.0001) compared to -2.3% +/- 0.9% (P = 0.01), between-group P = 0.0006); lumbar spine: -5.1% +/- 0.8% (P < 0.0001) compared to -2.6% +/- 0.7% (P = 0.0006), between-group P = 0.07]. Osteocalcin [+1.60 +/- 0.32 (P < 0.0001) and +1.81 +/- 0.29 (P < 0.0001) nmol/l] and the urine DPD/creatinine ratio [+1.35 +/- 0.44 (P = 0.0029) and +1.19 +/- 0.38 nmol/mmol (P = 0.0024)] increased in both groups over 24 months, with no significant difference between groups. PTH increased to a greater degree in the NVP/LPV/r group [+2.0 +/- 0.31 pmol/l (P < 0.0001)] compared to [+0.81 +/- 0.33 pmol/l (P = 0.021) in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group].

CONCLUSION:

BMD in both femoral neck and lumbar spine decreased rapidly after initiation of cART, in parallel to an increase in bone turnover. The greater bone loss in the ZDV/3TC/LPV/r group compared to the NVP/LPV/r group suggests that ZDV/3TC contributes to this process. The PTH increase does not explain this greater bone loss.

PMID:
19424051
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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