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Science. 2009 May 8;324(5928):768-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1170335.

N-doping of graphene through electrothermal reactions with ammonia.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry and Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Erratum in

  • Science. 2010 Sep 17;329(5998):1467.


Graphene is readily p-doped by adsorbates, but for device applications, it would be useful to access the n-doped material. Individual graphene nanoribbons were covalently functionalized by nitrogen species through high-power electrical joule heating in ammonia gas, leading to n-type electronic doping consistent with theory. The formation of the carbon-nitrogen bond should occur mostly at the edges of graphene where chemical reactivity is high. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectroscopy confirm the carbon-nitrogen species in graphene thermally annealed in ammonia. We fabricated an n-type graphene field-effect transistor that operates at room temperature.

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