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Am J Sports Med. 2009 Jun;37(6):1223-34. doi: 10.1177/0363546509335947. Epub 2009 May 5.

Tendon disorders of the foot and ankle, part 2: achilles tendon disorders.

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  • 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.


Disorders of the Achilles tendon include both acute and chronic ruptures as well as a spectrum of chronic overuse injuries involving inflammatory and degenerative changes within the tendon and surrounding tissues. These injuries are relatively common in athletes as well as among the general population. There is no consensus on the optimal treatment of Achilles tendon disorders. The goals of this review are to develop a current understanding of the anatomy and diagnostic evaluation of the Achilles tendon, and to present current treatment options and the authors' preferred surgical techniques for operative management of Achilles tendon disorders.

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