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APMIS. 2009 May;117(5-6):458-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0463.2009.02453.x.

Communication between Toxoplasma gondii and its host: impact on parasite growth, development, immune evasion, and virulence.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK 73104, USA.


Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect most warm-blooded animals and cause severe and life-threatening disease in developing fetuses and in immune-compromised patients. Although Toxoplasma was discovered over 100 years ago, we are only now beginning to appreciate the importance of the role that parasite modulation of its host has on parasite growth, bradyzoite development, immune evasion, and virulence. The goal of this review is to highlight these findings, to develop an integrated model for communication between Toxoplasma and its host, and to discuss new questions that arise out of these studies.

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