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Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2009 Mar;6(3):395-404.

The genetics of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism:unraveling the biology of human sexual development.

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  • 1Pediatric Endocrine Division, Department of Pediatrics, Brooklyn, New York 11219, USA.

Abstract

Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism (IHH), a syndrome of GnRH deficiency, is characterized by varying degrees of sexual development disruption. When associated with anosmia, it is termed Kallmann Syndrome (KS). Although it was identified as a hereditary disorder over half a century ago, only during the last two decades have specific putative IHH genes been revealed, including: KAL1, GnRHR, FGFR1, GPR54, PROK2, PROKR2, FGF8, CHD7, TAC3 and TAC3R. Human mutations have shed light on the molecular control of GnRH neuronal embryogenesis and have elucidated elements critical in sexual development. Furthermore, the newly proposed oligogenic model has challenged the dogma of IHH being a single gene disorder and has heightened appreciation for the functional overlap of distinct signaling systems. This review offers an historical perspective to gene discoveries in IHH, genotype-phenotype correlations, and finally, discussion of the evolving complexity of the new IHH genetic model, no longer simply characterized by Mendelian inheritance.

PMID:
19396025
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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