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Am J Kidney Dis. 2009 Jun;53(6):950-60. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2008.12.036. Epub 2009 Apr 25.

CKD and mortality risk in older people: a community-based population study in the United Kingdom.

Author information

  • 1Public Health Sciences and Medical Statistics, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK. pjr@soton.ac.uk

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases with age; however, the prognostic significance in older people is uncertain. This study aims to determine the association of CKD with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in community-dwelling older people 75 years and older.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cohort study of people 75 years and older recruited in 1994 to 1999 to 1 arm of a trial of multidimensional health assessment with mortality follow-up.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

53 general practices in Great Britain. 15,336 (73%) of those eligible participated. 13,177 (86%) had serum creatinine measured at baseline.

MAIN FACTOR:

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).

OUTCOMES:

All-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

MEASUREMENTS:

eGFR derived from serum creatinine level using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation in milliliters per minute per 1.73 m(2); dipstick proteinuria. Mortality by linkage to national death registration and death certification.

RESULTS:

After a median follow-up of 7.3 years (interquartile range, 5.0), 7,633 (58%) had died, 42% of cardiovascular causes. In the first 2 years of follow-up, adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in eGFR bands of 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and less than 30 compared with eGFR greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) were 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.37), 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.26 to 2.28), and 3.87 (95% confidence interval, 2.78 to 5.38) in men and 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 0.93 to 1.40), 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.68), and 2.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.68 to 3.56) in women, respectively. Hazard ratios were greater for cardiovascular mortality and lower after 2 years. Dipstick proteinuria was independently associated with all-cause, but not cardiovascular, mortality risk in both sexes.

LIMITATIONS:

Single serum creatinine measurement, no calibration of serum creatinine, MDRD Study equation not validated in older people.

CONCLUSION:

As kidney function decreases, there is a graded and independent increase in all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk in older people 75 years and older, especially in men and those with eGFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Dipstick proteinuria did not add to cardiovascular mortality risk in this elderly population. In older people, identification and management of CKD should prioritize the smaller numbers with more severe CKD.

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PMID:
19394727
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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