Display Settings:

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination
Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e003. doi: 10.1621/nrs.07003. Epub 2009 Apr 3.

Retinoid-related orphan receptors (RORs): critical roles in development, immunity, circadian rhythm, and cellular metabolism.

Author information

  • Cell Biology Section, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. jetten@niehs.nih.gov

Abstract

The last few years have witnessed a rapid increase in our knowledge of the retinoid-related orphan receptors RORalpha, -beta, and -gamma (NR1F1-3), their mechanism of action, physiological functions, and their potential role in several pathologies. The characterization of ROR-deficient mice and gene expression profiling in particular have provided great insights into the critical functions of RORs in the regulation of a variety of physiological processes. These studies revealed that RORalpha plays a critical role in the development of the cerebellum, that both RORalpha and RORbeta are required for the maturation of photoreceptors in the retina, and that RORgamma is essential for the development of several secondary lymphoid tissues, including lymph nodes. RORs have been further implicated in the regulation of various metabolic pathways, energy homeostasis, and thymopoiesis. Recent studies identified a critical role for RORgamma in lineage specification of uncommitted CD4+ T helper cells into Th17 cells. In addition, RORs regulate the expression of several components of the circadian clock and may play a role in integrating the circadian clock and the rhythmic pattern of expression of downstream (metabolic) genes. Study of ROR target genes has provided insights into the mechanisms by which RORs control these processes. Moreover, several reports have presented evidence for a potential role of RORs in several pathologies, including osteoporosis, several autoimmune diseases, asthma, cancer, and obesity, and raised the possibility that RORs may serve as potential targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. This prospect was strengthened by recent evidence showing that RORs can function as ligand-dependent transcription factors.

PMID:
19381306
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2670432
Free PMC Article

Images from this publication.See all images (8)Free text

Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk