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J Smooth Muscle Res. 2009 Feb;45(1):39-53.

Endothelium-independent vasodilation induced by kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds, in rat superior mesenteric arteries.

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  • 1Laboratório de Tecnologia Farmacêutica, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Joâo Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil.


Previous studies have established the hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of kolaviron (KV), a biflavonoid complex from Garcinia kola seeds. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the vasorelaxant effects of KV in isolated superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive rats. KV (1, 10, 30, 100, 300, 500 and 1,000 microg/ml) concentration-dependently inhibited the contractions induced by phenylephrine (PHE) (10 microM) and KCl (80 mM) in both endothelium-intact (E(max) = 58.3 +/- 1.7% and 51.4 +/- 1.3%, respectively) and -denuded rings (E(max) = 59.3 +/- 5.5% and 64.3 +/- 2.4%, respectively). Furthermore, KV reduced CaCl(2)-induced contraction in Ca(2+)-free medium containing KCl 60 mM, thus acting as a Ca(2+)-antagonist. In addition, KV inhibited the transient contraction by PHE in Ca(2+)-free medium containing EGTA, suggesting a possible action on the release of intracellular Ca(2+) via the inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3)) pathway. KV is not a specific alpha-adrenoceptor blocker, since it also caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of contractile responses to KCl, suggesting that KV also blocks the L-type Ca(2+)-channel. As a Ca(2+) antagonist, KV (100 microg/ml) potentiates the relaxant effects of nifedipine in denuded rings (E(max) = 97.6 +/- 1.2%; control = 75.1 +/- 3.0%, P<0.05). Also, the vasorelaxation induced by KV was significantly inhibited after pre-treatment of the denuded rings with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) 1 mM, a selective blocker of voltage-dependent K(+) (K(v)) channels and, tetraethylammonium (TEA) 1 mM or charybdotoxin (ChTX) 0.1 microM, non-selective blockers of large and intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels. In contrast, neither glibenclamide (10 microM), BaCl2 (1 mM) nor apamin (0.1 microM), blockers of K(ATP), K(IR) and SK(Ca) channels, respectively affected the KV-induced vasorelaxation. In conclusion, our results provide functional evidence that the vasorelaxant effects by KV involve extracellular Ca(2+) influx blockade, inhibition of intracellular Ca(2+) release and the opening of K(+) channels sensitive to 4-AP and ChTX with a resultant membrane hyperpolarization/ repolarization.

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