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Autophagy. 2009 Jul;5(5):699-705. Epub 2009 Jul 10.

A multiple ATG gene knockout strain for yeast two-hybrid analysis.

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  • 1Life Sciences Institute, Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2216, USA.


Autophagy is a major intracellular degradative pathway that is involved in many human diseases. The molecular mechanism of autophagy has been elucidated largely through studies on autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. One difficulty in understanding the mechanism of autophagy has been the lack of functional motifs in most of the Atg proteins. In the absence of this information, studies that have focused on the interactions between Atg proteins have shed light on their functions. However, in most studies, it is difficult to determine whether an interaction is direct or occurs through other Atg proteins, particularly in vivo. Here, we took advantage of a new reagent, a multiple knockout (MKO) strain lacking 24 ATG genes, and converted the strain into a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) host strain. We introduced three reporter genes into the existing MKO strain, and analyzed known interactions in the new MKO Y2H strain background to verify its utility. We also probed a new interaction using the MKO Y2H strain, and our results suggest that Atg29 and Atg31 interact independently of other known Atg proteins, and this interaction may mediate the interaction between Atg17 and Atg29.

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