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Eur Addict Res. 2009;15(3):135-42. doi: 10.1159/000210043. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Alcohol craving scale based on three factors.

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  • 1Psychiatry Service, Hospital 12 de Octubre, Madrid, Spain.



Alcohol craving is a central aspect of alcoholism about which various explanatory theories and assessment questionnaires, based on such craving, have been developed. However, there are no instruments for the assessment of craving in line with the integrative hypotheses recently formulated that propose three types of craving: positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and loss of control.


The construction and validation of a craving scale based on three factors. We expect to obtain a correlation between each factor and associated variables from prior studies. We also expect significant differences in craving between alcoholic individuals and controls.


The scale was administered to 209 alcohol-dependent subjects and 137 controls.


Alcohol Craving Scale Based on Three Factors (ACS-3F); Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Severity of Alcohol Dependence Scale.


We confirmed the existence of the three factors initially proposed in the structure of the instrument, with high reliability. The relationship between the scale and the measures employed for its validation was confirmed. Adequate capacity of the scale to discriminate between the sample of alcoholics and the controls was observed.


The ACS-3F has adequate psychometric properties and may be useful in future research and in clinical practice.

Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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