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Acta Biomater. 2009 Jul;5(6):2322-30. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2009.02.032. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Bioactivation of titanium surfaces using coatings of TiO(2) nanotubes rapidly pre-loaded with synthetic hydroxyapatite.

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  • 1Department of Applied Chemistry, Kogakuin University, Tokyo, Japan.


Apatite depositions from simulated body fluid (SBF) have been widely used for the in vitro assessment of the bioactivity of bone- and dental-implant materials. In previous work, we reported that titanium-based implant materials can be coated with an anodic TiO(2) nanotube layer which can significantly stimulate apatite formation. In the present work, we demonstrate that the tubular nature of such coatings makes them highly suitable for the application of a treatment called "alternative immersion method (AIM)", which preloads the coatings with synthetic hydroxyapatite. This treatment is indeed found to additionally promote natural apatite formation significantly. To study the AIM effect, layers of nanotubes with various diameters and crystal structures (amorphous, anatase/rutile) were produced, AIM-treated, and the formation of apatite in SBF10 (10mmol1(-1) HCO(3)(-)) was evaluated. The results show a drastic enhancement of apatite deposition rates (in some cases >20-fold acceleration) for AIM-treated TiO(2) nanotube layers in comparison with non-treated TiO(2) surfaces.

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