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Am Heart J. 2009 Apr;157(4):740-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.12.003. Epub 2009 Jan 31.

Impact of female gender and transradial coronary stenting with maximal antiplatelet therapy on bleeding and ischemic outcomes.

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  • 1Laval Hospital, Québec Heart-Lung Institute, Canada.



Female gender has been associated with poorer outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and femoral approach. However, no data are available on the impact of gender and transradial PCI with maximal antiplatelet therapy on bleeding and ischemic outcomes.


In the EArly discharge after Stenting of coronarY arteries (EASY) trial, 1,348 patients with acute coronary syndrome underwent transradial PCI. All patients were pretreated with aspirin and clopidogrel. After sheath insertion, 70 U/kg heparin was administered and a bolus of abciximab was given before first balloon inflation. Major adverse cardiac events including death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization; major bleeding; and local hematomas were evaluated at 30 days, 6 months, and 12 months.


Women (n = 298, 22%) were older, had more hypertension, more family history, and less previous PCI than men. Weight, baseline hemoglobin, and creatinine clearance were significantly lower in women. The number of dilated sites, complex lesions, and procedure duration was similar, but 5F sheath size was more frequent in women. Major adverse cardiac events remained similar at 30 days (3.4% vs 3.9%, P = .86), at 6 months (11.5% vs 7.8%, P = .06), and at 1 year (14.1% vs 12.6%) in both groups. There was no significant difference in the incidence of major bleeding between the 2 groups, but female gender was the only independent predictor of hematomas (odds ratio 4.40, 95% confidence interval 2.49-7.81, P < .0001).


Despite more comorbidities, female gender was not a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes after transradial PCI with maximal antiplatelet therapy. Still, female gender remained associated with a higher risk of local hematomas. Efforts should continue to identify modifiable factors to reduce procedural bleeding in women, regardless of the access site.

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