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Int J Mol Sci. 2008 Nov;9(11):2231-42. doi: 10.3390/ijms9112231. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Extended Grunwald-Winstein analysis - LFER used to gauge solvent effects in p-nitrophenyl chloroformate solvolysis.

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  • 1Department of Chemistry, Wesley College, Dover, Delaware 19901-3875, USA. <>


Specific rates of solvolysis at 25 degrees C for p-nitrophenyl chloroformate (1) are analyzed using the extended (two-term) Grunwald-Winstein equation. For 39 solvents, the sensitivities (l = 1.68+/-0.06 and m = 0.46+/-0.04) towards changes in solvent nucleophilicity (l) and solvent ionizing power (m) obtained, are similar to those previously observed for phenyl chloroformate (2) and p-methoxyphenyl chloroformate (3). The observations incorporating new kinetic data in several fluoroalcohol-containing mixtures, are rationalized in terms of the reaction being sensitive to substituent effects and the mechanism of reaction involving the addition (association) step of an addition-elimination (association-dissociation) pathway being rate-determining. The l/m ratios obtained for 1, 2, and 3, are also compared to the previously published l/m ratios for benzyl chloroformate (4) and p-nitrobenzyl chloroformate (5).


Grunwald-Winstein equation; LFERS; Solvolysis; addition-elimination; association-dissociation; chloroformates; leaving group effects; p-nitrophenyl chloroformate

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