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J R Soc Interface. 2009 Aug 6;6 Suppl 4:S535-46. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2008.0521.focus. Epub 2009 Mar 4.

Harnessing nature's toolbox: regulatory elements for synthetic biology.

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  • 1Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.


Synthetic biologists seek to engineer complex biological systems composed of modular elements. Achieving higher complexity in engineered biological organisms will require manipulating numerous systems of biological regulation: transcription; RNA interactions; protein signalling; and metabolic fluxes, among others. Exploiting the natural modularity at each level of biological regulation will promote the development of standardized tools for designing biological systems.

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