Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nat Rev Cancer. 2009 Apr;9(4):302-12. doi: 10.1038/nrc2627.

Parallel progression of primary tumours and metastases.

Author information

  • 1Division of Oncogenomics, Department of Pathology, University of Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany.


Systemic cancer progression is accounted for in two basic models. The prevailing archetype places the engine of cancer progression within the primary tumour before metastatic dissemination of fully malignant cells. The second posits parallel, independent progression of metastases arising from early disseminated tumour cells. This Perspective draws together data from disease courses, tumour growth rates, autopsy studies, clinical trials and molecular genetic analyses of primary and disseminated tumour cells in support of the parallel progression model. Consideration of this model urges review of current diagnostic and therapeutic routines.

Comment in

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk