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Am J Surg. 2009 Aug;198(2):237-43. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2008.11.034. Epub 2009 Mar 23.

Recent trends and predictors in immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy in the United States.

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  • 1Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.



Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy has increased in frequency during the past decade, but the socioeconomic and patient factors have yet to be fully identified.


Data were analyzed from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1999 to 2003 using International Classification of Disease-9 codes to identify patients undergoing immediate breast reconstruction. Regression analyses were used to examine predictive variables for immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy.


Between 1999 and 2003, 469,832 patients underwent mastectomy. Immediate breast reconstruction occurred in 110,878 patients, yielding a 5-year average rate of 23.6% (range of 22.2% to 25.3%). Independent predictors of immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy include private insurance, hospital in an urban location, teaching hospital, white race, hospital region in the south, age between the 3rd and 6th decades, and low number of comorbidities.


Immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy is still not commonly performed in the United States. Socioeconomic and geographic factors play a significant role in whether patients undergo immediate reconstruction.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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