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J Med Food. 2009 Feb;12(1):100-8. doi: 10.1089/jmf.2007.0700.

Legume-, fish-, or high-protein-based hypocaloric diets: effects on weight loss and mitochondrial oxidation in obese men.

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  • 1Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Physiology and Toxicology, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Abstract

The nutritional composition of dietary intake could produce specific effects on metabolic variables such as mitochondrial oxidation, whose understanding could contribute to apply more individualized weight-lowering strategies. This study assessed the effects of four hypocaloric diets with high protein content or different food distribution on metabolic changes and mitochondrial oxidation accompanying weight loss. Thirty-five obese men (body mass index of 31.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m(2) and 38 +/- 7 years old) were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (8 weeks): control diet (C-diet); legume diet (L-diet); fatty fish diet (FF-diet); or high-protein diet (HP-diet). Body composition, blood pressure, resting energy expenditure, mitochondrial oxidation, blood biomarkers, and dietary intake were assessed. The HP-diet and L-diet achieved the greater body weight reduction (-8.4 +/- 1.2% and -8.3 +/- 2.9%, respectively), as compared to the C-diet (-5.5 +/- 2.5%; P = .042). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were reduced in all dietary groups except for the FF-diet. Total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly improved by the L-diet (P < .05), while the homeostatic model assessment index of insulin resistance value was significantly reduced in those men following the HP-diet. Mitochondrial oxidation was specifically activated by the HP-diet and L-diet at the end of the study. Interestingly, a lineal regression model explained about 25% (P = .029) of the mitochondrial oxidation variability as influenced by the diet changes once adjusted by resting energy expenditure. The specific consumption of legumes or high protein content within a hypocaloric diet could activate mitochondrial oxidation, which could involve additional benefits to those associated with the weight reduction.

PMID:
19298202
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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