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Biotechnol Bioeng. 2009 Aug 1;103(5):975-83. doi: 10.1002/bit.22305.

Localized expression profiles of rpoS in Escherichia coli biofilms.

Author information

  • 1Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13, West-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan.

Abstract

Although importance of the rpoS gene on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli has been suggested, there has not been any report showing where the rpoS is expressed during biofilm formation process. Since physiological state of the cells in the biofilms is considerably heterogeneous, the expression of the rpoS gene must be heterogeneous. In this study, in situ spatial expression of the rpoS gene during biofilm formation was investigated with an rpoS-gfp transcriptional fusion mutant strain. A ribosomal binding site and a gene encoding a green fluorescent protein were introduced into the downstream of the rpoS gene, which enabled us to observe the in situ spatial expression of the rpoS gene during biofilm formation processes without any disturbance of the rpoS expression. In the early stages of the biofilm formation process, the rpoS gene was expressed in the most of the cells. On the other hand, the rpoS expression was observed only at the outside of the biofilms during the late stages of the biofilm formation process. The in situ spatial expression of the rpoS gene in the biofilm was verified by quantifying the expression levels of the rpoS at the outside and the inside of the biofilms with the real time RT-PCR. In addition, global gene expression analysis was performed with DNA microarray to investigate physiological difference between the outside and the inside of the biofilms. This heterogeneous rpoS expression profile suggested that the cells at the outside of the biofilm need to express the rpoS to shift the physiological state to the stationary growth mode such as induction of various stress responses and suppression of the motility.

PMID:
19288441
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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