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Acta Biochim Pol. 2009;56(1):89-102. Epub 2009 Mar 14.

Translational and structural analysis of the shortest legume ENOD40 gene in Lupinus luteus.

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  • 1Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, PoznaƄ, Poland.


Two early nodulin 40 (enod40) genes, ENOD40-1, the shortest legume ENOD40 gene, and ENOD40-2, were isolated from Lupinus luteus, a legume with indeterminate nodules. Both genes were expressed at similar levels during symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. ENOD40 phylogeny clustered the L. luteus genes with legumes forming determinate nodules and revealed peptide similarities. The ENOD40-1 small ORF A fused to a reporter gene was efficiently expressed in plant cells, indicating that the start codon is recognized for translation. The ENOD40-1 RNA structure predicted based on Pb(II)-induced cleavage and modeling revealed four structurally conserved domains, an absence of domain 4 characteristic for legumes of indeterminate nodules, and interactions between the conserved region I and a region located upstream of domain 6. Domain 2 contains Mg(II) ion binding sites essential for organizing RNA secondary structure. The differences between L. luteus and Glycine max ENOD40 RNA models suggest the possibility of a switch between two structural states of ENOD40 transcript.

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