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J Biol Chem. 2009 May 29;284(22):14796-808. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M806486200. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates osteoblast mechanotransduction.

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  • 1Department of Medicine and Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.

Abstract

Continuous bone remodeling in response to mechanical loading is critical for skeletal integrity, and interstitial fluid flow is an important stimulus for osteoblast/osteocyte growth and differentiation. However, the biochemical signals mediating osteoblast anabolic responses to mechanical stimulation are incompletely understood. In primary human osteoblasts and murine MC3T3-E1 cells, we found that fluid shear stress induced rapid expression of c-fos, fra-1, fra-2, and fosB/DeltafosB mRNAs; these genes encode transcriptional regulators that maintain skeletal integrity. Fluid shear stress increased osteoblast nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, leading to activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Pharmacological inhibition of the NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway blocked shear-induced expression of all four fos family genes. Induction of these genes required signaling through MEK/Erk, and Erk activation was NO/cGMP/PKG-dependent. Treating cells with a membrane-permeable cGMP analog partly mimicked the effects of fluid shear stress on Erk activity and fos family gene expression. In cells transfected with small interfering RNAs (siRNA) specific for membrane-bound PKG II, shear- and cGMP-induced Erk activation and fos family gene expression was nearly abolished and could be restored by transducing cells with a virus encoding an siRNA-resistant form of PKG II; in contrast, siRNA-mediated repression of the more abundant cytosolic PKG I isoform was without effect. Thus, we report a novel function for PKG II in osteoblast mechanotransduction, and we propose a model whereby NO/cGMP/PKG II-mediated Erk activation and induction of c-fos, fra-1, fra-2, and fosB/DeltafosB play a key role in the osteoblast anabolic response to mechanical stimulation.

PMID:
19282289
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2685661
Free PMC Article

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