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Surg Clin North Am. 2009 Apr;89(2):439-61, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2008.11.001.

Hospital-acquired pneumonia: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287-4685, USA.


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection, morbidity, and mortality in hospitalized patients. Many patient- and disease-specific factors contribute to the pathophysiology of HAP, particularly in the surgical population. Risk-factor modification and inpatient prevention strategies can have a significant impact on the incidence of HAP. While the best diagnostic strategy remains a subject of some debate, prompt and appropriate antimicrobial therapy in patients suspected of having HAP has been shown to significantly decrease mortality. Because the pathogens responsible for HAP are frequently more virulent and have greater resistance to commonly used antimicrobials than other pathogens, clinicians must have knowledge of the resistance patterns at their institutions to choose appropriate therapy.

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