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Cardiovasc Res. 2009 May 1;82(2):272-85. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvp087. Epub 2009 Mar 11.

Nuclear and mitochondrial signalling Akts in cardiomyocytes.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacology, University of California, La Jolla, San Diego, CA 92093-0636, USA.


Biological actions resulting from phosphoinositide synthesis trigger multiple downstream signalling cascades by recruiting proteins with pleckstrin homology domains, including phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 and protein kinase B (also known as Akt). Retrospectively, more attention has been focused on the plasma membrane-associated interactions of these molecules and resulting cytoplasmic target activation. The complex biological activities exerted by Akt activation suggest, however, that more subtle and complex subcellular control mechanisms are involved. This review examines the regulation of Akt activity from the perspective of subcellular compartmentalization and focuses specifically upon the actions of Akt activation downstream from phosphoinositide synthesis that influence cell biology by altering nuclear signalling leading to Pim-1 kinase induction as well as hexokinase phosphorylation that, together with Akt, serves to preserve mitochondrial integrity.

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