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Eur J Radiol. 2009 May;70(2):227-31. doi: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.01.045. Epub 2009 Mar 9.

Noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic nanorod-contrast photoacoustic mapping of sentinel lymph nodes.

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  • 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St Louis, St Louis, MO 63130-4899, USA.


Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has increasingly become important in axillary staging of breast cancer patients since SLN biopsy alleviates the postoperative complications of previously practiced axillary lymph node dissections. Nevertheless, the procedures of SLN biopsy using blue dye and radioactive substance are still intraoperative, and the latter methods are also ionizing. In this pilot study, we have proposed noninvasive in vivo spectroscopic photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping using gold nanorods as lymph node tracers in a rat model. Gold nanorods have biocompatibility, high optical absorption, and easily tuned surface plasmon resonance peak wavelength.

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