Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Cell Stem Cell. 2009 Mar 6;4(3):226-35. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2009.01.007.

PTEN/PI3K/Akt pathway regulates the side population phenotype and ABCG2 activity in glioma tumor stem-like cells.

Author information

  • 1Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10021, USA.


In normal brain, the side population (SP) phenotype is generated by ABC transporter activity and identifies stem cell and endothelial cell subpopulations by dye exclusion. By drug efflux, the ABCG2 transporter provides chemoresistance in stem cells and contributes to the blood brain barrier (BBB) when active in endothelial cells. We investigated the SP phenotype of mouse and human gliomas. In glioma endothelial cells, ABC transporter function is impaired, corresponding to disruption of the BBB in these tumors. By contrast, the SP phenotype is increased in nonendothelial cells that form neurospheres and are highly tumorigenic. In this cell population, Akt, but not its downstream target mTOR, regulates ABCG2 activity, and loss of PTEN increases the SP. This Akt-induced ABCG2 activation results from its transport to the plasma membrane. Temozolomide, the standard treatment of gliomas, although not an ABCG2 substrate, increases the SP in glioma cells, especially in cells missing PTEN.

Comment in

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Publication Types, MeSH Terms, Substances, Grant Support

Publication Types

MeSH Terms


Grant Support

PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk