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Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2009 Apr;18(2):273-89, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2008.11.002.

Phenomenology, longitudinal course, and outcome of children and adolescents with bipolar spectrum disorders.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Pediatric bipolar disorder (BPD) significantly affects the normal emotional, cognitive, and social development. The course of children and adolescents with BPD is manifested by frequent changes in symptoms polarity showing a dimensional continuum of bipolar symptoms severity from subsyndromal to mood syndromes meeting full DSM-IV criteria. Thus, early diagnosis and treatment of pediatric bipolar is of utmost importance.

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