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J Clin Oncol. 2009 Apr 1;27(10):1675-84. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.18.2717. Epub 2009 Mar 2.

Phase II trial of sorafenib in metastatic thyroid cancer.

Author information

  • 1Ohio State University, Department of Internal Medicine, Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Genetics, Pathology, Radiology, Center for Biostatistics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Based on the pivotal role of Ras-Raf-MAP-ERK signaling and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), we conducted a phase II clinical trial of sorafenib targeting RAF and VEGF receptor kinases in PTC.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The primary end point was the objective response rate. Secondary end points included response correlation with serum thyroglobulin (Tg); functional imaging; tumor genotype; and signaling inhibition in tumor biopsies. Using a Simon minimax two-stage design, 16 or 25 chemotherapy-naïve metastatic PTC patients were to be enrolled in arm A (accessible tumor for biopsy). Arm B patients had other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma or prior chemotherapy, and did not require tumor biopsies. Patients received 400 mg orally twice per day of sorafenib. Response was assessed every 2 months using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors).

RESULTS:

Of 41 PTC patients, six patients had a partial response (PR; 15%; 95% CI, 6 to 29) and 23 patients (56%; 95% CI, 40 to 72) had stable disease longer than 6 months. Median duration of PR was 7.5 months (range, 6 to 14). Median progression-free survival was 15 months (95% CI, 10 to 27.5). In 14 (78%) of 18 Tg-assessable PTC patients, Tg declined more than 25%. Common grade 3 adverse events included hand-foot skin reaction, musculoskeletal pain, and fatigue. BRAF mutation was detected in 17 (77%) of 22 PTCs analyzed. Four of 10 paired tumor biopsies from PTC patients showed a reduction in levels of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor phosphorylation, ERK phosphorylation, and in VEGF expression during sorafenib therapy. No PRs were noted among non-PTC patients.

CONCLUSION:

Sorafenib is reasonably well-tolerated therapy with clinical and biologic antitumor activity in metastatic PTC.

PMID:
19255327
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC2668972
Free PMC Article
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