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Int Immunol. 2009 Apr;21(4):317-37. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxp017. Epub 2009 Feb 26.

The roles of TLRs, RLRs and NLRs in pathogen recognition.

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  • 1Laboratory of Host Defense, World Premier International Research Center, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka , Japan.


The mammalian innate immune system detects the presence of microbial infection through germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Toll-like receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors serve as PRRs that recognize different but overlapping microbial components. They are expressed in different cellular compartments such as the cell surface, endosome, lysosome or cytoplasm and activate specific signaling pathways that lead to expression of genes that tailor immune responses to particular microbes. This review summarizes recent insights into pathogen sensing by these PRRs and their signaling pathways.

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