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Chromosoma. 2009 Jun;118(3):279-90. doi: 10.1007/s00412-009-0206-8. Epub 2009 Feb 26.

Monoallelic gene expression in mammals.

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  • 1Siberian Department, Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia.


Three systems of monoallelic gene expression in mammals are known, namely, X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and allelic exclusion. In all three systems, monoallelic expression is regulated epigenetically and is frequently directed by long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). This review briefs all three systems of monoallelic gene expression in mammals focusing on chromatin modifications, spatial chromosome organization in the nucleus, and the functioning of ncRNAs.

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