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Int Rev Immunol. 2009;28(1):20-48. doi: 10.1080/08830180802684331.

Mucosal immunity and protection against HIV/SIV infection: strategies and challenges for vaccine design.

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  • 1Vaccine Branch, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


To date, most HIV vaccine strategies have focused on parenteral immunization and systemic immunity. These approaches have not yielded the efficacious HIV vaccine urgently needed to control the AIDS pandemic. As HIV is primarily mucosally transmitted, efforts are being re-focused on mucosal vaccine strategies, in spite of complexities of immune response induction and evaluation. Here, we outline issues in mucosal vaccine design and illustrate strategies with examples from the recent literature. Development of a successful HIV vaccine will require in-depth understanding of the mucosal immune system, knowledge that ultimately will benefit vaccine design for all mucosally transmitted infectious agents.

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