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Hum Immunol. 2009 May;70(5):325-30. doi: 10.1016/j.humimm.2009.02.008. Epub 2009 Feb 21.

Tumor-associated macrophages and the related myeloid-derived suppressor cells as a paradigm of the diversity of macrophage activation.

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  • 1Istituto Clinico Humanitas IRCCS, Rozzano, Milan, Italy.


Macrophages undergo a wide spectrum of polarized activation states, and have the potential both to elicit tumor and tissue destructive reactions and to promote tumor progression (macrophage balance). In general, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) from established tumors and the related myeloid-derived suppressor cells are diverse and have properties of M2-activated cells. As such, they help cancer progression and metastasis. Therefore, TAM are a key component of pathways connecting inflammation and cancer.

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